Races of the Hollow Earth: Demihumans

And God said, Let vs make man in our Image, after our likenesse: and let them haue dominion ouer the fish of the sea, and ouer the foule of the aire, and ouer the cattell, and ouer all the earth, and ouer euery creeping thing that creepeth vpon the earth.

So God created man in his owne Image, in the Image of God created hee him; male and female created hee them.

Genesis 1:26-27

MOST people are unaware that the World is home to other species of intelligent life beyond humankind, and has been home in the past to even more. Those learned people who have discovered the sometimes terrible truth that we are not alone have wondered that there is a similarity between the world’s intelligent species (at least those thus far discovered) which clearly differentiates them from beasts, beyond simply the faculty of language and the ability to use tools. All intelligent species outwardly resemble each other to at least some extent: they are possessed of two arms, two legs, a head, opposing fingers and thumbs, and broadly similar organs. The primary intelligent species of the world resemble each other so closely that we can call the non-human species “demihumans” to mark their very close resemblence.

Humanity is the only species of intelligent life which inhabits the surface of the world in modern times. Although it is split into various races and nations, most starkly divided between Old World and New, all humans are much alike when considered against the other, less well-known peoples of the Hollow Earth. In its hubris, humankind fancies itself the master of the world, but only very few understand even the smallest part of the truth of this world, and one cannot be master of that which one does not understand.

Most of the world’s intelligent life appears to have been created by the Engineers, an incredibly advanced race which disappeared from this orb untold millennia ago. It is possible that the similarities which exist between humans, dwarves, elves and halflings are due to a common creator. Perhaps the Engineers formed us all in their image, with only small deviations to differentiate us?


The dwarves were created by the Engineers who built the Hollow Earth in the time before time. They were created as servitors to maintain the creation of their masters, but over the eons most of the truth of their origins has been forgotten, leaving existence bereft of meaning for most dwarves. There is nothing for most dwarves but work, endless work, as time allows chaos to encroach upon the perfect creation of the Engineers. Ironically the dwarves know too much; they know enough to know that what is most important to know has already been known and long since forgotten. This is their curse, the terrible knowledge which slowly murders their race, killing the joy of life, and with it the love between dwarves which leads to the birth of successive generations.

Unlike the other inhabitants of the Hollow Earth, it is common knowledge amongst the dwarves that the world is hollow and that they live on the inside of it. The dwarves know that they are custodians of this hollow world for the Engineers. The Engineers are the closest things the dwarves have for gods, but they have been gone for millennia, and beyond a few artifacts and the world itself, the dwarves have nothing left of the Engineers. Access to the Great Archive of the Engineers was lost dozens of centuries ago, when the elves invaded the hollow earth by means of magic, occupying the island the elves now call Tír na nÓg, which had been forbidden to the races of the hollow earth, for it lay above the Great Archive. The dwarves fought to defend the Great Archive against these invaders, but since the Engineers had not created them with the ability to use magic, the dwarves were gradually pushed back by the elves. Eventually, the dwarves were forced to make a terrible decision – collapse the subterranean passages beneath Tír na nÓg on top of the fighting armies and in so doing cut off their only access to the Great Archive, or allow the invaders access to the forbidden knowledge of the Engineers. Their duty ingrained in their DNA, the dwarves protected the Great Archive even at the cost of losing their own access to it forever. Over the years the collective memory of the contents of the Great Archive has passed into dimly remembered mythology as successive generations of dwarves fail to pass on everything they remember to the generation which succeeds them.

The dwarves know there are no gods, and that all the world is but a mechanism whose designers have long abandoned it, a mechanism whose maintenance is their responsibility, against whose inexorable decay their endless work is ultimately futile.

The dwarves are spread almost everywhere through the Hollow Earth, unlike its other species, living mostly hidden from view between mountains, linked by a subterranean network of tunnels. The continents were once linked through such tunnels by high-speed transports and cables which carried communication signals across great distances, but after the dwarves lost access to the Great Archives they gradually lost the ability to maintain such high technology, and the great train and communication networks of the Engineers run through the veins of the earth no more. The dwarves do the best they can, travelling these tunnels to tend to the ancient mechanisms which maintain the world’s gravity (to both the inner and outer world), and filter its atmosphere, but these too are losing battles, for as the ancient machinery develops faults not encountered in generations, the dwarves can no longer consult the Great Archive to find the appropriate maintenance procedure.

The dwarves are not just maintenance staff – they are also zoo keepers, charged with keeping the various civilizations of the hollow earth intact and more or less separate from each other. Here too they have not been as successful as once they were, finding it especially difficult to counteract the abilities of magic users since the Engineers, in their wisdom, designed the dwarves to be incapable of wielding magic (and thus incapable of challenging the supremacy of their now absent masters). Historically the dwarves have only directly confronted the inhabitants of the Hollow Earth when they have felt there was no other option – generally they prefer to work in the shadows to contrive to keep each species to the area assigned to it by the Engineers, or to at least prevent their further spread. When the sea monsters around Tír na nÓg proved inadequate to prevent the elves spreading to the surrounding islands, for example, the dwarves built fleets for the Fomorians, and gave them maps sufficient to navigate to Tír na nÓg and the new elven colonies, working through proxies where possible, hoping that the Fomorians would further dissuade the elves.

The few dwarves who become adventures are those who throw off the malaise of the rest of the culture, and deny the doom of their people, determined to live in the world they know to be dying, and to enjoy it while they can. They are still hesitant to share the secrets of their people and the Hollow Earth with the non-dwarves they befriend, however, because to do so would break not only a deep-seated cultural taboo, but also every instinct written into their DNA by the Engineers in the time before time.


The elves are creatures of Chaos, bathed in the arcane fires of magic. They once ruled the surface of the world, but retreated into the Hollow Earth through eldritch sorcery in the earliest days of humanity. The Tuatha Dé Danann, sometimes called sidhe, fairy folk, or elves in the mythology of those who dwell in our world, once inhabited Ireland before the arrival of the first humans, the Gaels. Having just been involved in a cataclysmic war with the Fomorians, the elves retreated to the Hollow Earth, which they call the Otherworld, rather than fight the human settlers. They have lived in the Otherworld for untold millennia and although they are ageless, few if any elves still live who can remember Ireland before the first men.

The elves have many gods, chief amongst whom is the mother goddess Danu. Tuatha Dé Danann means “the peoples of the goddess Danu”. Once they reach adulthood, elves are effectively ageless, maintaining the appearance of eternal youth. For this reason the part of the Otherworld they call home is called Tír na nÓg, meaning “Land of Youth”. Elves have also settled on a few nearby islands, and there is some trade by sea between these colonies and Tír na nÓg, although elves prefer not to sail long distances due to the risk of sea monsters and Fomorian sea raiders. Although they left Ireland and the rest of the world of humans in the time before history, elves have often interacted with humans through magical means, which led to them becoming an integral part of the pre-Christian religion of the Irish. Many elven kings, queens and other leaders have become “gods” to the pre-Christian Gaels or figures in modern Irish folklore, although naturally many of the stories and depictions are distorted through their retelling over centuries. Amongst the elves, there are stories of elves who travelled from the Otherworld back to the world of humankind – none of them have ever been known to return.

The elves live in Tír na nÓg with the Brownies, their halfling servants. Although long-lived, halflings do age and die. Most elven families have been served by halflings of the same lineage for centuries. Halflings do most of the housework, farming, gardening, and other manual labour, leaving the elves to pursue martial, cultural, spiritual and magical pursuits.

Although generally peaceful, the elves are occasionally called to arms to defend their homes against the Fomorians and other residents of the Otherworld. Like the elves, the Fomorians once lived in Ireland, but were driven into the Otherworld or destroyed after the death of their warlord leader Balor. The Fomorians raid elven lands from the sea, taking slaves, looting, and destroying homes. These violent incursions recur frequently and stop the elves from sinking into total decadence. They also serve to thin out the numbers of the otherwise undying sidhe. The elves have also fought against other residents of the Otherworld, although far less frequently.

In the earliest days of their time in the Otherworld, the elves fought a war with a race of short, gruff, bearded warriors who lived underneath the mountains of Tír na nÓg, who had been determined to drive the elves into the sea. Instead, thanks to their use of magic, the elves drove them from the surface and chased them into their subterranean lairs, and all that stopped them chasing their adversaries ever deeper beneath the surface of the earth was a massive collapse, triggered by the retreating enemy to stop further incursion, crushing what remained of their own armies as well as those of the elves.


Halflings, or Brownies as they are sometimes called, live in the Hollow Earth, mostly in the elven homeland of Tír na nÓg. Most live as the servants of elven families. Since elves are immortal and halflings are not (living about one hundred years on average), it is common for halflings to serve the same elven master as their parents, and their grandparents and great-grandparents before them, going back many generations. They are not slaves, and are generally well-looked after by their elven masters, for if they would not, they would leave. They do not have their own language, and instead speak the tongue of their masters. They perform most of the manual labour for the elves, but are nevertheless characterized by elves as self-indulgent, because halflings spend their free time frivolously, in the judgement of elvenkind, eating, drinking, playing games, and generally being merry, instead of the “higher pursuits”‘ of the elves.

Halflings generally have their own homes nearby the homes of their employers, and tend to be very house proud. In larger elven settlements, there tends to be a Brownie district, where the homes of all the halfling servants are found. All of the generations of a halfling family live under one roof. Generally speaking the adult males, unmarried females, and females whose children are grown will all work for the same elven master – it is rare that halflings from one household work for different elves. The roles they perform for the elves change over time, with older halflings generally employed in less physically demanding roles. Most halflings retire sometime in their nineties. Most halfling males will live in the same home for their entire life – the females will move only once, when they are married. Halflings like to say that the reason for their bare feet is that they don’t like to walk very far so they don’t need shoes – in reality their feet are naturally hard and insulated against the elements so as to render shoes redundant, but it does illustrate the halfling attitude about straying too far from home.

Henchman Rules for LotFP

In my game I supplement the rules for henchmen in LotFP with the following rules taken from AD&D 1e – these rules (or more likely, the 1981 B/X D&D interpretation of them) seem to be assumed by LotFP but there are a few details missing. Everything in Rules & Magic pp.47-51 is correct and unmodified by these supplemental rules.

Henchmen Limit

A character may employ a maximum number of henchmen equal to 4 modified by the character’s Charisma modifier. Thus, a CHA 3 character can only have 1 henchman, a CHA 18 character can have a maximum of 7. This limit does not apply to other types of retainers – only to henchmen. A character is only restrained with respect to other retainers by their ability to pay.

Henchmen Class Levels

Henchmen are the only retainers who can have class levels. Their maximum level at the time of being hired is the level of their employer minus 2, and they cannot increase to the same level as their employer (always remaining 1 XP short of so doing). A character can have a level 0 henchman, if they really want… they don’t gain a class until level 1 though (which they will automatically reach when their employer reaches level 3).

Loyalty Checks

The LotFP Rules & Magic book lists the general cases in which a henchman’s loyalty is tested. Loyalty is kept confidential by the referee. As per p.47 of Labyrinth Lord (retroclone of B/X D&D), loyalty is tested at the end of an adventure – this is defined as when they are paid out. If the loyalty check is failed, the henchman will gracefully retire rather than let you suicidal idiots needlessly endanger them again before they get a chance to spend their hard-won loot.

Henchmen Loot

Henchmen are entitled to a half share of loot (if they survive). In the AD&D Players Handbook (Appendix V) they effectively get half as many magic items as player characters. This hasn’t come up much in our campaign thus far, but when it has the value of magic items has generally been reasonably accurately known, so the henchman can just be paid out half the value. Either way it works out to a half share of loot anyway. All of a henchman’s treasure is the property of their legal heirs upon their death – any equipment provided by the player characters can be reclaimed by the employer. The henchman’s equipment and expenses should be paid by their employer individually, not out of the party fund.

Ruling for Henchmen XP

Henchmen receive a full share of XP gained for defeating enemies. They gain XP for treasure based on their half share of treasure, however.

Coins of the English Civil War in LotFP

This article was originally written for players in my own LotFP campaign, set in the English Civil War, starting with the England Upturn’d module.

Lamentations of the Flame Princess is distinguished from other D&D variants in that it uses a silver standard. As per the main rulebook, 1gp = 50sp = 500cp.

What does this mean in actual English money? That is, the old, pre-decimal pound sterling: 1£ = 20 shillings (s), 1s = 12 pence (d). But at this point, the pound sterling and shillings alike were really units of account – not actual coins. Even where coins existed with these “face values”, the face values were generally overlooked in favour of the metal value of the coin (which was often debased by the government – and during the civil war there were two governments in effect doing the debasing!).

The basic coin is the silver piece – the silver penny. In theory it should be mostly silver although it is occasionally debased but we’ll overlook that for the purposes of playability. Likewise there were two pence coins, groats, six pence, although none probably as commonly circulated as the penny, and we’ll also overlook them. These are primarily minted at the Tower of London, and even under Parliament’s control during the war, the coins are minted with Charles I’s face on them. Coins are still hammered at this time, so they are not always perfectly round and shaped as modern coins are. An example is shown below. We can take the silver penny as having a concrete value in game terms – 1sp.

There were gold crown coins minted with a face value of 5 shillings (confusingly there were some silver crowns too but let’s ignore them). These were by far the most common “gold coins” and are almost never seen. Gold coins are the currency of pirates! Well, that and international trade. There are double crowns (10 shillings – example below), unites (20 shillings = 1£), double unites (40 shillings = 2£) and the King even mints some triple unites (60 shillings = 3£) at the mints he controls at Oxford and Shrewbury from 1642 to 1644. We will assume that most gold coins encountered are crown coins, with a face value of 5 shillings (60d) – this is the denomination closest to the Lamentations 50sp = 1gp. In any case, we can assume currency debasement will make the value of any gold coin “even out” to 1gp.

All silver and gold coins minted by the King and Parliament alike feature a “head” side which shows the King’s head encircled by “CAROLUS DG MAG BRIT FRAN ET HIBER REX” – abbreviated Latin for “CHARLES BY THE GRACE OF GOD, OF GREAT BRITAIN, FRANCE AND IRELAND KING”. Coins minted by the Parliament usually make the King look older for some reason. Usually the “tails” side shows the coat of arms.

Along the edge of the tails side of the penny is usually printed the phrase “IUSTITIA THRONUM FIRMAT” – Latin for “Justice Strengthens the Throne”. Other silver and gold coins may replace this phrase with “CHRISTO AVSPICE REGNO” – “I reign under the auspices of Christ”. Larger coins minted by the King during the early years of the war replace the “tails” side with a part of Psalm 68 “EXURGAT DEUS DISSIPENTUR INIMICI” – “Let God arise and His enemies be scattered”, and most importantly, what amounts to the King’s “campaign motto” – what he promises to uphold if victorious in the war: “RELIG PROT – LEG ANGL – LIBER PAR” – or “The Protestant Religion, the Laws of England, the Liberty of Parliament”.

So these are the “official” coins. What is a copper piece then? Generally it amounts to a local trade token produced by a guild redeemable for real money, or even a silver coin cut into smaller pieces, or perhaps a “siege coin”, but they may also be copper farthings (value 5cp). These farthings were not produced by the Royal Mint, but by aristocrats who were granted (or bought) the privilege of minting farthings from the King, under patent (they can be called patent-farthings for this reason). This started in the reign of King James I, and continued under Charles I. They are small with simple designs usually featuring crossed sceptres, crowns, roses, harps, and other devices associated with the King (example shown below). They say “CAROLVS DG MAG BR” on one side and “FRA ET HIB REX” on the other – “Charles by the Grace of God, of Great Britain” / “France and Ireland, King”. They were heavily prone to forgery, as were local trading tokens, so 10cp = 1sp is quite a reasonable exchange rate because people would generally honour a lower value than the face value.

Finally, as the war goes on, there are more and more “siege coins” minted during a siege. They were generally made deliberately not to resemble “normal” coins and would be redeemed later. An example from the Siege of Newark is shown below.

Personality Trait Saving Throws for OSR Games

One of my regular campaigns is Greg Stafford’s masterpiece, King Arthur Pendragon. For those unfamiliar with the game system, the game is notable for providing game stats for characters in the form of traits and passions. When a player wishes to determine how their knight would behave in a given situation, or when they are confronted by extreme circumstances, they roll against their character’s traits and passions to determine how their character would behave. Naturally, as ever when rolling dice in an RPG, players must abide by the results of dice rolls irrespective of how they may prefer their character to behave. This system simulates knightly behaviour in Malory and other primary sources, where, for example, Lancelot goes mad and runs off into the woods for two years in response to being caught in bed with another woman by Guenever. Although this may sound antithetical to the sensibilities of old school play, it works beautifully in practice and is key to Pendragon‘s success.

I have been toying with this thought as I have reflected on potential replacements for the traditional alignment system in OSR games:

So what if we tried to retrofit a mechanical system to simulate personality traits to OSR games?

Inspired by playing Pendragon, I propose the use of a saving throw mechanic based on the saving throws of OSR games. The basic idea is that whenever a player wishes their character to act against a personality trait for which that character is known, they roll a saving throw against that trait. If they succeed, they may act however the player would want them to act. If they fail, they are compelled to act according to their personality trait.

For example, a notably proud character’s honour is affronted while on a diplomatic mission. Given the sensitivity of the mission, the player would prefer it if their character swallowed their pride and let the matter pass for now without further comment, perhaps secretly swearing revenge in the distant future. The referee asks the player to roll a save versus their pride. The character fails, and immediately challenges the offender to a duel as a result!

These mechanics would only suit certain styles of campaign, of course, and I cannot claim extensive play testing, so I hope you will let me know your thoughts and feedback especially if you try them out at your table! In the spirit of the OSR these mechanics are intended for the referee to make rulings rather than as prescriptive rules.

Trait Selection

Every player character picks one or more character traits for which their character is known at character generation. The referee may choose to encourage the selection of traits with some sort of in character advantages – but it is suggested that player characters do not begin play with too many. Some example personality traits:

  • Proud
  • Lustful
  • Bigotted (against a race or group)
  • Generous
  • Honest

The chosen traits are recorded on the character sheet as a saving throw with a target number of 15.

Save vs Trait

When the referee or the player determines that the character’s personality trait is being tested by the situation, the player rolls a save versus the trait’s target number. A roll equal to or above the number succeeds, as per the usual saving throw procedure.

On a natural roll of 20, not only is the save made, but the character finds it easier to act against the trait in the future. Reduce the save’s target number by 1 for future saves vs this trait. If a trait is reduced to 1 in this fashion, the character has overcome the trait and need not save against it anymore.

On a natural roll of 1, not only is the save failed, but the trait becomes even more pronounced. Increase the save’s target number by 1 for future saves vs this trait. A trait cannot be increased beyond 20 in this way.

Gaining Traits in Play

Player characters often develop pronounced personality traits over the course of a long-term campaign. The referee may award the character a new trait (with a default starting value of 15) if they notice the character consistently exhibit a particular response/behaviour in similar circumstances. The character may also develop a new trait in response to a life-changing event. Such trait-saves may be more specific than those selected during character creation, for example:

  • Love for a brother
  • Hatred against a sworn enemy
  • Heartbreak over the death of a lover

Losing a Trait

Other than reducing the trait-save’s target value by rolling lots of 20s as per the above, a character may lose a trait through making a successful save vs that trait in response to a major event or extraordinary circumstance. For example, a very proud character who makes a successful save versus their pride and debases themselves in a very public setting may forever overcome their pride in so doing. A character may also lose a trait (especially a very specific one) if it no longer makes narrative sense for them to have it. For example, if a character with hatred for a sworn enemy as a trait kills that sworn enemy in single combat, the trait is eliminated. If the character finds out that their sworn enemy isn’t really their father’s murderer and the whole basis for their hatred was false all along, the trait might be eliminated – unless they have another reason to hate them that is!

Referee Advisory Warning

The referee will need to carefully consider the selection of traits and their suitability for the campaign in question. If the game uses the regular alignment system alongside trait-saves, then the referee may also wish to be careful not to allow personality traits which overlap with features of various alignments. It is better for personality traits to be selected which a player may occasionally wish to act against. This does not limit traits to “vices” as opposed to virtues, however. A virtue in one situation may be a vice in another. A notably honest character may wish to tell white lies or withhold the whole truth from time to time, for example! At the same time, it is better to avoid traits which the player will always wish to act against – this can lead to unnecessary conflict and arguments at the table as the player objects to their character being too regularly “compelled” to behave in a certain fashion by the dice.

What is a long campaign in Lamentations of the Flame Princess?

My LotFP group just wrapped up what will likely be the last session of our regular LotFP campaign of 2018. Our game is played via Roll20 as we are split between three different countries these days, and generally we play every fortnight, although over the middle months of the year we were often playing weekly instead. We have been playing our “England Upturn’d” campaign for just under 2 years now, although about halfway through we did have a near total party kill (and the survivors imprisoned without hope of escape) and we started playing again with a new party, continuing in the living campaign setting of weird fantasy Civil War England as the first party had left it. Maybe that fact means that our 2 year campaign is really two 1 year campaigns, with the second a sequel to the first? I am pretty sure though that by the standards of Gyyax Himself in the 1e DMG, our game counts as one campaign. But I digress…

What counts as a long campaign in LotFP anyway? I have noticed in Raggi’s forewords to recent products and online statements the suggestion that the typical campaign is short and tends to stay in a low-level range. Indeed, the “most campaigns don’t last until high level” thinking informs the suggested spell-level free casting system included in the last two Free RPG Day releases, Vaginas are Magic! and Eldritch Cock. High level spells are fun but you aren’t going to make it to high level so why not make spells level-free so that any magic-user can cast them? I am not saying that is wrong, by the way, just that it suggests I am right when I guess that most LotFP campaigns are short.

LotFP is based on Basic D&D, which tends to be deadly. Its published modules are generally deadly (and often campaign-world changing). I feel I am running this campaign very much in the high-risk, high-stakes mode suggested by the official material. And I have certainly killed my fair share of player characters along the way. The highest level PCs may have just hit level 5 in today’s session, so true “high level” play is still some way off, but it still sounds like our campaign has outlasted many other LotFP games.

If this is true, I want to know why? Is it by design? Do other referees set out to run say, a 6 session campaign with LotFP? If so, why do they do that? Is it because it is harder for these adult gaming groups (and I assume everyone playing LotFP is an adult!) to game regularly, and all their campaigns are thus planned to be brief and therefore easier to sustain? Or do they only do this with LotFP? If these short campaigns are not by design, then I am even more interested to know what the cause of that is. Do players start dropping out because they start finding the modules distasteful, offensive, or too fatal? Or are TPKs super common, killing promising campaigns in the cradle before they hit their stride?

Either way, we are still having a lot of fun and hopefully in a year’s time we’ll be about to wrap up our third year of our weird fantasy English Civil War!

Level 0: Apprenticeships

As mentioned in my previous post, level 0 characters can be a lot of fun. Since a level 1 character starts with 0 XP, a level 0 character does not “level up” to level 1 by gaining XP, but rather by achieving a narrative milestone of some description. One such milestone could be the completion of an apprenticeship. In this post, I am going to consider apprenticeships for human characters leading to the standard four classes in Basic D&D. But first…

Levelling Up to Level 1

When your level 0 character attains level 1, the character immediately gains the full benefits of their chosen character class. This potentially includes a new hit die to replace their racial hit die. Roll the new hit die and apply Consitution modifier as normal. If the result is more than your character’s maximum hit points at level 0, then the result becomes the character’s new maximum hit points. If the result is less, then your character keeps the same hit point maximum as they had at level 0.

Human Apprenticeships

Humans can be clerics, fighters, magic-users, or thieves. A level 0 human character gains their first level of a character class once they complete an apprenticeship. Apprenticeships generally last several years of in-game time – thus most apprentice characters will be several years in to their apprenticeship at the time play begins. All of the apprentices given below are level 0 humans, but they have an additional ability reflecting their in-progress training as compared to other level 0 humans. All apprentices have the same weapon and armour proficiencies as level 1 characters of the same class.

Apprentice Clerics

Apprentice clerics assist fully-fledged clerics of their orders. Generally, they serve and learn from one high-level cleric of their order who has retired from active adventuring. The high-level cleric tends a temple or major holy place, and has pastoral duties to a congregation of worshippers. The apprentice cleric assists the high-level cleric during ceremonies of worship and other religious rituals. In some orders, apprentice clerics also perform menial tasks like cleaning the temple, or mundane but important religious tasks, like distributing alms to the poor. In addition to performing these duties, the apprentice cleric studies in the temple’s scriptorium, learning from the sacred texts. When the apprentice cleric masters the teachings of their religion (which typically takes 7 years), the high-level cleric recommends that the apprentice be ordained as a fully-fledged cleric of the order. The order may impose some sort of exam, trial, or test of faith before a hierophant of the order ordains the apprentice as a cleric.

Apprenticeship Ability

Apprentice clerics may cast spells from clerical scrolls just like level 1 clerics. This is the only way they can cast spells.

Apprentice Fighters

Apprentice fighters can take many forms, and most fighter “apprenticeships” are not formalised arrangements. Knights train their squires to become knights – and this is the most formal sort of apprenticeship for a fighter. The institution of knighthood and the training a squire undergoes is really a matter for its own article (and in many OSR games, its own character class as distinct from the typical fighter). Less formalised and prolonged than squire training is the on-the-job training in soldiering a conscript receives on the march. An apprentice fighter receives training in arms and armour, but is not yet “blooded” to any significant extent. A squire typically serves a knight for seven years before being knighted themselves, completing their apprenticeships. A common soldier’s training is much shorter, and their “apprenticeship” could be considered to consist of the whole period from the start of their basic training up until their first battle.

Apprenticeship Ability

An apprentice fighter can wield any weapon, use shields, and wear any armour, just like level 1 fighters.

Apprentice Magic-Users

Magic-Users must study the arcane arts for years, and never really finish their “training” in that they are always studying and learning throughout their careers. The point at which they cease to be defined as an apprentice is the point when they stop depending on their master to teach them new spells and techniques, and develop the ability to learn for themselves. This can take a decade or more. An apprentice serves a high-level magic-user who has retired from active adventuring, their master. The master passes on their magical lore to their apprentice in miserly drips and drabs over that time, while the apprentice assists their master in the laboratory and library, helping their master perform unspeakable experiments in sorcery. More than a few apprentice magic-users have had their apprenticeships brought to an early end through spellcraft experiment gone wrong! Apprentice magic-users also perform the mundane and menial tasks about their master’s abode which cannot (or have not) been eliminated through the use of magical cantrips for the purpose. 

Apprenticeship Ability

Apprentice magic-users can cast spells from scrolls prepared by their master. If they use this ability to cast the spell read magic from a scroll written by their master on a scroll written by another magic-user (or elf), then they can cast spells from that scroll too. Apprentice magic-users cannot create scrolls themselves.

Apprentice Thieves

Thieves Guilds in major cities employ large numbers of apprentice thieves, who learn their craft performing petty crimes. Apprentice thieves start young, and Guilds have up to a dozen apprentice thieves for every master thief in residence. The attrition rate is horrific, since apprentice thieves are easily apprehended while their skills are still in the formative stage. Nevertheless, there are always plenty of apprentice thieves about, since every major city has enough desperate young people without better options available to them. Thief apprenticeships vary in length considerably, since some apprentices pick up the trade faster than others, and since the apprentice themselves decides when to leave the relative safety of the Guild to seek their fortune. An apprentice thief may serve as little as eighteen months as an apprentice before striking out on their own, or up to five years or more.

Apprenticeship Ability

Apprentice thieves select any two thief skills from the list of skills for a level 1 thief. They have those two skills at the same level as a level 1 thief. This skill selection should represent the sort of petty crime the apprentice thief specialises in (e.g. pick pocket, cat burglar, etc).

Apprentice Starting Gold

Human apprentices start with 3d6 x 5 gold pieces.

Demihuman Apprenticeships

Demihuman characters may also serve apprenticeships while they are level 0, much like human characters. However, since these level 0 characters already have racial special abilities (e.g. infravision), they do not have any other apprenticeship abilities. Since demihumans are longer lived than humans, demihuman apprenticeships are generally of a longer duration. Elven apprenticeships in particular may last for decades!

Level 0 Characters

Level 0 characters are generally NPCs. They have no levels of any character class (hence they are level 0 as opposed to level 1), and represent ordinary, non-adventuring people in the game world. Sometimes, it can be fun for players to (generally briefly) play level 0 characters at a start of a campaign so that they can define some of the character’s “backstory” in play. Some simple rules for doing this are presented here for Basic variants of the world’s most popular roleplaying game and its simulacra.

Level 0 Character Creation

  1. Roll ability scores (as usual)
  2. Choose character race (human, dwarf, elf, halfling). Do not pick a character class.
  3. Roll hit points (using racial hit die instead of class hit die).
  4. Choose alignment (as usual)
  5. Choose languages (as usual)
  6. Rolling starting money and buy equipment (as usual)
  7. Complete biographical details (as usual)

Character Race

All level 0 characters must roll 20 To Hit Armour Class 0. Note the hit die and saving throws for your chosen race from the table below:



Humans can go on to be clerics, fighters, magic-users, or thieves when they reach level 1.


Dwarves require at least Constitution 9. They have the usual special abilities at level 0:

  • Detect Traps & Construction Tricks on 2 in 6.
  • Infravision up to 60 feet


Elves require at least Intelligence 9. They cannot cast spells at level 0, but have the other usual special abilities:

  • Detect Secret Doors on 2 in 6.
  • Immunity to Ghoul Paralysis
  • Infravision up to 60 feet


Halflings require at least Dexterity and Constitution 9. They get no bonuses to missile attacks or initiative, but have the other usual special abilities:

  • Halflings get a bonus to AC (-2) when fighting creatures greater than human-size because of their size.
  • Hide in bushes when outdoors (90% chance)
  • Hide in shadows in dungeons (2 in 6 chance)

Reaching Level 1

Since level 1 characters start with 0 XP, it follows that level 0 characters do not gain experience points in the conventional sense. Instead, a level 0 character has to pass a narrative milestone determined by the referee which represents the character’s transition from “normal life” to a career as an adventurer. Possibly, the character must complete some sort of apprenticeship period in order to “level up” to level 1. To become a cleric, they may have to serve for a period in the temple as an acolyte, for example.

OSR Armour

Apparently people are really ideological about the ascending/descending armour class issue. I never understood this. I can understand why some people prefer ascending armour class and positive to hit bonuses to THAC0, on the basis that addition is easier than subtraction, I guess, but on my Basic D&D character sheet, I always wrote down the score needed to hit each armour class. As a player anyway this is even easier than ascending armour classes and bonuses to hit – you just add your Strength bonus to your roll and glance at the table to see whether you hit an opponent with a given AC. For example (for level 1 characters in Basic D&D):

To hit AC:9876543210-1-2-3
Roll Req’d:10111213141516171819202020

To avoid blundering into the ascending/descending AC holy war (seriously people), and also to remain compatible with AD&D’s different base AC I suppose, many OSR/DIY D&D modules now present monster and NPC armour class not with a number, but with an armour type.

Example from DIY D&D remake of Palace of the Silver Princess,

This is quite neat. Let’s look at the basic armour types from Basic D&D and their numeric armour classes from Basic, AD&D, d20 and 5e (slightly simplified):

Armour TypeBasicAD&Dd205e
Chain mail551516
Plate mail331818

Not only are there different armour classes between each generation of D&D as shown in the table above, but the gaps between armour classes is also inconsistent. In trying to provide a “look up” table similar to the kind written on your character sheet in Basic D&D with rolls required to hit for each armour type listed, I have by coincidence settled upon the d20 AC numbers (they tend to be either the same as the roll required in Basic or between that number and the 5e AC):

Armour TypeRoll Required (1d20 + To Hit Bonus)
Chain mail15
Plate mail18

The “To Hit Bonus” is the Strength (melee) or Dexterity (ranged) modifier plus the proficiency bonus (5e), base attack bonus (d20), or 20 – your THAC0 (in TSR versions of the game).

Going off-script in the Great Pendragon Campaign

I love King Arthur Pendragon. The Great Pendragon Campaign is central to the 5th edition of the game. The 5th edition rulebook presumes that your campaign will start in the reign of King Uther, and its character generation rules are geared accordingly. The rules necessary for later eras of play do not primarily appear in the KAP rulebook itself, but “unfold” with the successive eras of the Great Pendragon Campaign. 5th edition Pendragon is built from the ground up assuming you are going to play the Great Pendragon Campaign.

And you should. If you’ve the slightest interest in Arthurian mythology, you should play the Great Pendragon Campaign. If your group completes the Great Pendragon Campaign, it is a great gaming accomplishment, which will be respected by everyone in the greater roleplaying hobby who has ever even thought of playing Pendragon. If Greg Stafford, may he rest in peace, still walked among the living, he would commemorate your achievement personally on Nocturnal Media’s web forum, and you would be fully deserving of such recognition even by so great a luminary.

The Great Pendragon Campaign presents each year of the Arthurian saga, from 485 AD to 566 AD. By the end of the campaign, your player characters will be the grandchildren, perhaps even great grandchildren, of the player characters you started with in 485 AD. Each session of Pendragon should correspond to one game year – that’s 82 sessions for your campaign, assuming you don’t have any years which stretch to two sessions. Plus the Book of Uther includes an extra 5 years at the start – with a 480 AD start your campaign will run for 87 sessions. If you play approximately fortnightly as my group does, you will take more than three years to finish the Great Pendragon Campaign. Through that three years of play, you will experience the whole of medieval history, as every decade of two in the campaign advances the social and technological era by a century. King Uther’s period is analogous to the 10th Century, with dark ages grit, chainmail, and barbarian raiders, whereas the Grail Quest period is analogous to the 14th Century, with courtly love, partial plate, tournaments, and so on.

The basic format of the Great Pendragon Campaign book is to present each phase of the campaign as a chapter, with general notes about the era, and then to present the key events of each year. Each year is generally 1 to 3 pages covering everything from court gossip to political developments and often includes event-specific adventures. The style of play changes throughout the campaign. The Uther period can be quite “railroady” for example, as your party is assumed to follow Uther about in his bloody wars of unification, close enough to witness the events leading to the birth of Arthur. Following the death of King Uther (and likely most of your player knights) at the Infamous Feast after the Battle of St Albans in 495 AD, play transitions to the much more open Anarchy period, during which time the player knights will largely control the fate of their home county, Salisbury, as Britain suffers without a king.

My Pendragon campaign is presently in the last few years of the Anarchy period. The surviving senior player knights have assumed leadership of Salisbury through its regency council, ruling on behalf of the underage male heir of the late Count Roderick and his widow. While the Great Pendragon Campaign book does not proscribe what the player knights should do, year on year, it does assume that they will at the very least not willingly submit their county to the rule of the Saxon invaders. Saxons are like Pendragon’s orcs, kind of, only blonder. One group of Saxons, the West Saxons, is led by King Cerdic, who claims to be the son of the High King Vortigern the Tyrant. Vortigern was the traitor who opened Britain’s borders to migrants from the continent Vortigern betrayed his own people in favour of Saxon mercenaries who helped him cement his hold on power. He married Rowena, daughter of the Saxon chieftain Hengest, and Cerdic is the product of their union. Many of the player knights generated out of the 5th edition rulebooks will have family histories which involved their fathers fighting against Vortigern and his Saxon allies, and perhaps even getting murdered by the bastard in the Treachery of the Long Knives, one of the rare events in mythology which has been so overshadowed by the real life 20th Century historical event which appropriated its name that everyone is going to assume you are talking about Nazis and wonder why you made that weak strike-thru joke about Brexit a few sentences back. Anyway, the point is that one basic assumption made in the treatment of the Anarchy in the Great Pendragon Campaign book is that the player knights are not going to do homage to Saxons, especially not the Saxons led by the son of that rat bastard Vortigern who murdered all their families.

I can already hear experienced referees laughing right now. After all, if there is one thing player characters can do, it is mess up plans, even the plans of the esteemed Greg Stafford. In the absence of a legitimate king, my players decided that the Countess of Salisbury should not only do homage to King Cerdic of Wessex, but marry her only daughter to his son. As you might imagine, Salisbury now finds its destiny intertwined with Cerdic’s crown. Over the upcoming years of the campaign, the Great Pendragon Campaign book assumes that Salisbury will fight on the side of the (British) King of Escavalon or the (British) King of Cornwall, and that they will stand against the Saxons under the leadership of King Cerdic. In my campaign at least, that’s not going to happen, clearly.

So, what do I do? Well, the answer is both simple and obvious if you’ve read the Great Pendragon Campaign book – build the next few sessions around the very same political and military events, but just do them from the opposite point of view from that originally intended by the author. But what will the long-term implication be for the campaign? That’s harder to tell. When the Boy King Arthur draws the sword from the stone, will they accept him as their rightful king? Or when he is acknowledged by his mother and named as the only legitimate son of Uther, will they then bend the knee? Or will they cling stubbornly to their half-Saxon son of a tyrant, King Cerdic, because homage once paid is hard to “unpay”? Will Salisbury remain bound to the Saxon cause even until Badon Hill, when Arthur subdues the Saxons?

There are some who deride campaigns with “scripted” events as denying player agency on the story, or being as good as railroading the players, or just being flat-out boring. Greg Stafford and the Great Pendragon Campaign show us it does not have to be the case.

Review: The Adventurer’s Backpack

As discussed in my response to the OSR questionnaire, Castles & Crusades was my pathway to the OSR. There’s a variety of reasons for this. The system is more familiar to 3rd edition/Pathfinder players than 1e AD&D, but the game has that 1e feel in play, but this familiarity is overstated, in my view. Probably the biggest reason is that C&C looks the most like a “modern” game as a result of its full-colour, hard-cover rulebooks, and as such, is the easiest sell. Even though I am not currently playing C&C, I like the game a lot and I have continued to back its Kickstarters and buy the odd book when they’ve been on sale, because I think I probably will run C&C again one day.

I am embarrassed to say that I backed The Adventurer’s Backpack and then forgot about it until just recently. Since The Adventurer’s Backpack was launched on Kickstarter and funded, Troll Lords Games have launched other Kickstarters and fulfilled them. The production quality is always high, and the Trolls do a good job of staying in touch with backers without completely spamming them with updates (despite the opinion of some publishers, there is in fact a balance). The Kickstarter was nevertheless late by over a year, which isn’t great, but I’ve come to expect this from Kickstarter generally and probably didn’t miss the book because my C&C campaign fizzled out a while ago. The book was worth the wait, nevertheless!

The book is 144 pages long, full-colour, with a hard-cover, like TLG’s other handbooks. The main feature of the book is a set of pre-designed “backpacks”. In addition to this, the book includes 14 new character classes, new spells, expanded rules for spell-casting and magic, and rules for mounts and unarmed combat.

I am going to talk about the book’s titular feature first: the backpacks. Effectively, these are “quickstart” equipment packs. At the end of character creation, you roll your starting gold as usual, but rather than go equipment shopping, you go backpack shopping. I still say shopping because there is a huge range of backpacks to choose from – enough that you may even question whether this is any faster than simply buying all the equipment item by item. There are four broad types of backpack:

  • Common Backpacks (in dungeon, overland, and city varieties – both “basic” and “expert” levels which basically come down to cost)
  • Terrain-specific Backpacks (for cold weather, deserts, mountains, and sea-faring)
  • Speciality Backpacks (in effect these are for different “professions” rather than character classes and I suspect they’re intended for use by NPCs)
  • Class-specific Backpacks

The last three types are also generally labelled “shoulder packs” implying you can carry one of them in addition to a common backpack. Thus, despite there being 32 backpacks (and assorted related things like spell component packs and pack animals), the division into these different types of backpacks simplifies use. Most players can simply buy the one backpack intended for the broad sort of adventure they’re expecting (common backpack), then add shoulder packs for the type of terrain and their character class. Then the player can buy their weapons and armour as usual. In all likelihood, they will not be able to afford one of the shoulder packs, depending on their starting gold.

The packs contain an interesting mix of old favourites and flavourful “this might be handy” style equipment, the latter being more common in the “shoulder packs”. Although the prices are calculated with the C&C equipment list, these backpacks are fairly translatable to most OSR games, and substantially speed up the part of character creation which I find most tedious. As such, the core of the book is a really useful aid in play. 

This core has also been translated into equipment cards, which you can buy separately if you prefer that format. I don’t have the cards so I can’t say much else about them. While I didn’t see the point of these when I backed the Kickstarter, I can see the point now, and I’m contemplating buying them.

The new character classes in The Adventurer’s Backpack are an interesting collection. My first comment is that the classes are not what you might expect looking at the name. For example, there is a class called “Magic User”, which I can assure you is nothing like the venerable Magic User of Basic D&D, but rather a class which uses magic to manipulate the outcome of rolls rather than to cast spells. There are a few other such examples – “Arcane Thief” is not just a wizard/thief, for example. In some ways I am reminded of the Pathfinder Advanced Player’s Guide, only the classes in The Adventurer’s Backpack are unique and creative and not just a way to multiclass without having to use the multiclass rules. As someone who is generally ambivalent about the prospect of new character classes, I actually found myself pleasantly surprised by the character classes and think that these may help hold the interest of players from a 3rd Edition/Pathfinder background who are used to more character options than are typically provided by Castles & Crusades a

One comment on the presentation. I note that many OSR products, although generally printed in black and white, feature outstanding layout which not only looks great but is very thoughtful and deliberate. The layout of many OSR books enhances their “game-ability” at the table dramatically. The Adventurer’s Backpack has a fairly stock standard two column format. It’s not terrible, but it’s not up there with work like Jez Gordon’s layouts for Lamentations of the Flame Princess. The art throughout is in full-colour, which adds to the presentation since, as mentioned earlier, the full-colour, hard-cover presentation of C&C books helps them hold up against Paizo and WotC books in the eyes of “new school” players considering whether to give C&C a

I think The Adventurer’s Backpack has a lot of great gaming material for Castles & Crusades players. It’s nice to see a product for that system come out which caters to players rather than Castle Keepers. I am not worried at the possibility of overwhelming “rules bloat” either – Castles & Crusades has been around since 2004 and even if you have every book of optional rules, the game is still sleek and smooth. Even though it is new content, the core of The Adventurer’s Backpack mostly exists to streamline play by adding “speedy shopping” options which still preserve the realism of equipment management. As such, this is one “expansion” which won’t bog down your campaign.

If you would like to support this blog and purchase a copy of The Adventurer’s Backpack all at the same time, you can buy the book as a PDF from DriveThruRPG through my affiliate link below. The cards are also available, although I haven’t really reviewed them (I’m intrigued though!).